Microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms, those being unicellular ( single cell), multicellular ( cell colony), or acellular ( lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses multitudinoussub-disciplines including virology, bacteriology, protistology, mycology, immunology and parasitology.
Eukaryotic microorganisms retain membrane-bound organelles and include fungi and protists, whereas prokaryotic organisms — all of which are microorganisms — are conventionally classified as lacking membrane-bound organelles and include Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiologists traditionally reckoned on culture, staining, and microscopy. Still, lower than 1 of the microorganisms present in common surroundings can be dressed in insulation using current means. Microbiologists frequently calculate on molecular biology tools similar as DNA sequence grounded identification, for illustration the 16S rRNA gene sequence used for bacteria identification.